During the process of human own self exploration, various concepts/perspective of human nature have described the potential, and basis of mankind to correct the abnormalities within him. French scholar’s concept of human being as a rational human being seemed close to the Islamic psychology which empowering him as a unique Devine creation with potentials of creativity, exploration and extremities to control/possession of natural resources with eternal life like his Master/Creator of the universe. Mostly under the fast-tracking and self-centered period, even he has lost the status of unique creation in the universe. In fact, due to this temptation dethrones Adam and his wife from the peaceful environment from the paradise. So, since derailment, his generation is fighting to quench his thirst of power and self-survival even at times turned to be a brutal civilized mankind with probabilities of evil spirit like homicidal and suicidal tendencies on this earth. In order to remind and redirect the corrupted Ruh, the Creator revealed the directions for correction for enabling to return to the status in the paradise through noble normal deeds, mankind turns to be extremist in the life-span without realizing the mission of the creator, mostly in the timely worldly directions, the evil spirit prevails in the form of such as
The history of Islamic or Muslim Psychology is as old as the revealing of the Holy Book. The Prophet (PBUH) was the leader to spread the monotheist concept with human dignity, rights and duties, peace and prosperity for a balanced society. The mosque was declared a hub of training and disciplining the masses with knowledge, justice, and social activities; it was a counseling center for the community to pass meaningful life in a disciplined environment for all genders, ages, and even the non-believers in the state.
With the passage of time, scholars and leaders emerged in the mosque as a teaching, training and research center and as translation of other books started; its knowledge was spread in the world. Psychology remained an outstanding subject in the masses as it is related to the study of the relationship of the Creator and creatures, with the direction of following a balanced life pattern. Qur’an is a continuation of holy books sent to follow a dutiful and responsible life. A rich source of human psychology, it has been revealed for the correction of mentally-sick and derailed people who become extremist and lose the prescribed direction of the Creator. So, it has more preventive measures than curative aspects. The concept of accountability after death and demarcation between Allah (God) and mankind was made clear to bring a social bond among the people for their collective role in positive, productive and meaningful relationships.
Islamic history is full of great psychologists and scholars like Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865-925) Abu-Ali al-Husayn ibn Abdalah ibn-Sina (0980-1030). According to research, the word for Islamic psychology or ʿilm al-nafs, the science of the nafs(psyche), is the medical and philosophical study of the psyche from an Islamic perspective and addresses topics in psychology, neurosciences, philosophy of mind and psychiatry, as well as psychosomatic medicine.
According to Islamic psychology, the treatment of mental illness might include baths, music, and occupational therapy reflecting the great emphasis placed on the relationship between illness of the mind and problems in the body. Medicine would be prescribed in order to re-balance the four humors of the body, an imbalance of which might result in psychosis. Insomnia, for example, was thought to result from excessive amounts of the dry humors which could be remedied by the use of humectants of the body.
As stated in the writings of Muslim scholars, the term Nafs (self or soul) was used to denote individual personality and the term fitrah for human nature. Nafs encompassed a broad range of faculties including the qalb (heart), the ruh (spirit), the aql (intellect), and irada (will). It is believed by the western psychologist that Muslim scholarship was strongly influenced by Greek and Indian philosophy by drawing particularly from Galen’ understanding of the four humors of the body, as well as by the study of scripture.
It is recorded that in medieval Islamic medicine in particular, the study of mental illness was a specialty of its own, and was variously known as al-‘ilaj al-nafs (approximately "curing/treatment of the ideas/soul/vegetative mind), al-tibb al-ruhani ("the healing of the spirit," or "spiritual health"), and tibb al-qalb ("healing of the heart/self," or "mental medicine").
The classical Arabic term for the mentally ill was majnoon which is derived from the term Jenna, which means "covered". It was originally thought that mentally ill individuals could not differentiate between the real and the unreal. However, due to their nuanced nature treatment on the mentally ill, it could not be generalized as it was in medieval Europe This term was gradually redefined among the educated, and was defined by Avicenna as "one who suffers from a condition in which reality is replaced with fantasy."
As far as ethics and theology are concerned, in the Islamic world, special legal protections were given to the mentally ill. This attitude was reinforced by scripture, as exemplified in Sura V-4:5 of the Qur’an: “Do not give your property which God assigned you to manage to the insane: but feed and clothe the insane with this property and tell splendid words to them.”
This Quranic verse summarized Islam's attitudes towards the mentally ill, who were considered unfit to manage property but must be treated humanely and be kept under care by either a guardian or the state. This belief was similar to that of modern psychology, specifically to Sigmund Freud's beliefs that the mentally ill require help and treatment, as opposed to how society dealt with the mentally ill before modern psychology.
The Qur’an has repeatedly told of such mentally sick aggressors who were destroyed for such deeds. The mental state of such persons is analyzed in V-2: 6-10,” Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe. Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allah's Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment. And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day" while in fact they believe not. They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allah has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies.”