Before presenting the details about the criticism on Allah, Quran, Islam and the prophet’s life by the various western writers and ahale kitab i.e. Jews and Christians in the present century, it is essential to note the facts narrated in the Quran revealed to the prophets about 1430 years ago in the Arabic version to the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) an uneducated person in Mecca and Medina environment of acute hostility toward Islamic preaching.
V-43:2-3,” By the manifest Book (that makes things clear, i.e. this Quran). We verily, have made it a Quran in Arabic, that you may be able to understand (its meanings and its admonitions). And Verily, it (this Quran) is in the Mother of the Book (i.e. Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz), before us, indeed Exalted, full of Wisdom. Shall We then (warn you not and) take away the Reminder (this Quran) from you, because you are a people Musrifun.”
Example of previous people who were destroyed when they had great strength and opposional forces against Allah (God and His messengers, is revealed in V-43:6-25. It is quoted further and stated in V-35:2,”All the praises and thanks be to Allah .He increases in creation what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things. Whatever of mercy (i.e. of good), Allah may grant to mankind, none can withhold it, and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth? La ilaha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He). How then are you turning away (from Him)? And if they belie you (O Muhammad), so were Messengers belied before you. And to Allah return all matters (for decision).”
As far as the opposition and criticism among these religions is concerned, it is based on primarily due to aggressive movements to disgrace the image of the originators of a religion, concept about God, doctrines and religious practices by the follower of a religion. The atheist stands a fight against all the religions believed on God as the creator and controller of the universe. Second class of rivalry is about the concept of God and gods. The third most rigorous clash and war are between the followers of holy religions which has common ground but a bitter enmity against each other. This unit has basis in Judaism, Islam and Christianity called the religions of Ibrahim (the great grand prophet of monotheism). With the introduction of IT technology, in the present century internet has replaced the fights from battle ground to intellectuals fight against each religions. The use of media and commercial grouping has added sectarian rivalries into terrorism and human killing in the name of religion. In short people in the name of religion and human betterment have made the whole world a hell to pass a peaceful life.
The hypocrites and crooks in the lust of power, personal gains and reputation have developed certain uncontrolled aggressive groups, writers and propagating forces that in place of practicing the basis of religious obligatory duties and moral-ethical codes of ethics, they are putting their wealth, forces and sources quite contradictory route leading to destruction of humanity and defaming the cause of the religious theme.
At present the criticism and creating mis-conception is a media and internet wars are based on philosophical rivalries as the re-presenters of such mental clashes only criticize each other for the sake of criticism without paying attention on the common message of moral and ethical values preached for the betterment of humanity or to create understanding and homogeneity among the common man who lacks insight to tackle the sentimental aspects of religion. It is an easy or time killing hobby among the modern care-free young generation and atheist just to start mud throwing on the ancient holy religions without any specific goal to achieve from it. So, present-day websites are full of such dirty word passing games as anyone without any religious knowledge can involve in these arguments. They do not perceive the lesson or goals in these religions rather involve in the procedures and processing in performing the behavior of deeds mentioned in the religious books. Psychologically it looks that these so called critiques have obsessive-compulsive mental state in which a person keeps on arguing or performing an activity unconsciously and waste time in procedural affairs without completing a task or thoughts e.g. hand washing obsession with mania of cleanliness. Some of these clients know the causes of their uncontrolled behavior or thought but they are unable to get out of the whirl of obsessive thoughts or compulsive behavior. They kill their time, remained confused, never get out of rut of perfectionism and end result is with their unique intellectual power they remained confused or even tried to derail their clinicians. Actually such persons has rigidity and over-confident with negative idealization, Neither they want to use their mental skills for a positive cause by working on a definite goal nor they like their dear one to get away from their obsessive thoughts and action. The clinical solution lies in complete one segment of the problem and continues in step by completing a thought into action.
In place of just thinking to get involve in actions, feel the consequences and then on repeated performing these actions, then make a decision to see its results. Merely talking, arguing without a comprehensive knowledge of an aspect is just followings one’s own predisposition and rigidity of thought that one is right because one has made up his mind to prove himself right and others are wrong as he has decided to declare them wrong is a foolish man’s assumption else nothing. So, one must use reason, open the senses, see the references with the environmental realities, use logic and see law of causation about an aspect of nature, its continuity of system and powers running it with a purpose before declaring it a false reality on the basis of assumptions and ignorance.
Almost in all the surahs the attributes of God are revealed for the awareness of human beings. Such as in Al-Raad (13) and Al-Yunus (10), facts are narrated about the misunderstandings of atheist and pagans with logic, such as how human deeds and behavior are under His command as well as the observation, and is recorded but the non-believers have no senses about the consequences which they will be awarded. It is quoted in V-10:27-30,”And those who have earned evil deeds, the recompense of an evil deed is the like thereof, and humiliating disgrace will cover them (their faces). No defender will they have from Allah. Their faces will be covered, as it were, with pieces from the darkness of night. They are dwellers of the Fire, they will abide therein forever. And the Day whereon We shall gather them all together, then We shall say to those who did set partners in worship with Us: "Stop at your place! You and your partners (whom you had worshiped in the worldly life)." then We shall separate them, and their (Allah's so-called) partners shall say: "It was not us that you used to worship." "So sufficient is Allah for a witness between us and you, that We indeed knew nothing of your worship of us." There! Every person will know (exactly) what (all) he had earned before, and they will be brought back to Allah, their rightful Lord (Maula), and their invented false deities will vanish from them.”
Therefore, if this religious contradictions and criticism is seen, it is just a mental chess without any end. The misconception can be resolved with reasoning and tolerance by seeing the references within these three holy religions. The goal should be to reduce the gaps with rational and logical approach and not to exaggerate it to infuriate an ignorant common man as a religious follow er turning his energy toward aggression or terrorism.
Before touching the sensitive issue of various misconceptions and criticism on Quran, Prophet, Islam and Almighty Allah, it is important to note that Quran has quoted certain basic principles to handle such issues. The challenges to this subject have been a long practice among the tribal chiefs of Quresh, ahale kitab (followers of Torah and Bible) and pagans in and among the opponent of the prophet. Therefore most of the verses of Quran are referred to the questions as addressed in the holy book.
Primarily it was directed to have patience in life against the criticism of the non-believers as it has the best reward as stated in 02:-152-153 “Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying, etc.). I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless Favors on you) and never be ungrateful to Me. O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salat (the prayer). Truly! Allah is with As-Sabirin (the patient ones, etc.)”. So, Muslims were directed to act nicely, stick to true cause of Islam by praying for Allah’s help in their mission of Islam as quoted in V-22:-34-35 .
Secondly it was guided to avoid revenge or rivalry but have patience against their plots to harm your faith as stated in V-16:125-127.
In the Quran, the misconceptions of the atheist, polytheist, pagans and non-believer and arrogant are addressed to get insight about the sole Creator (Allah) and His control on the universe and its system in very simple examples with logic have already presented for the awareness and correction of the masses due to human limited knowledge, such as:-
a). those who disobey the Creator/Master (Allah) will be severely punished for this action accordingly. 1, Before the creation of Adam, angels and jinn was created, so Allah ordered them to bow to his creation (Adam), all obeyed the Lord but Iblis (Head of jinns) to do so by saying that he is superior as created from the fire (goes up) then Adam created by clay (dust), at this he was rejected for the disobeying and will be put in the hell as punishment. So, those who (human beings etc. such actions of disobeying Allah and His authority (directions/messages through the prophets) will be treated accordingly, both in this world and forever after death on rebirth on the day of judgment. Historically those nations were crushed for acting against monotheism as preached by their respective prophet.
b). Life and death and rebirth concept of human beings is presented in the form of rainy clouds which are sent by the Creator (Allah) that turned a barren land fertile and various types of fruits, vegetable etc. grow up which living beings use for life, then the land turned into dust, again it is refreshed as and when or how much, rain is blessed to a land piece on the earth. In this way mankind has been given guidance that power of creation is in Allah’s power and not a human own discretion. So, pay attention to the sole Creator of the universe and worship Him for his blessings.
c). The historical incident of Abraham is given to understand the idols which are made by hand by human beings are nothing as they are lifeless, dependent on the person, cannot eat or protect it if destroyed then how they can be equivalent to the Almighty Creator (Allah) of this universe. Therefore when Abraham preached about the monotheism and all the followers of polytheism turned against Ibrahim, foe developing insight in idolatry followers, he challenged the idols by saying why not they ate the feast food or protect them if harmed, he crushed the all idols and put on the shoulder of the head idol. When he was cross-questioned about the incident, he just stated they must ask the head idol having axe on its shoulder, asked it why not it was eating the festival dishes, then they were astonished to answer the reality but for the sake of their religious belief and dignity, they put him in fire but he was saved by the Master (Allah) of the universe. In the surahs it is quoted that both blessed and be blessed are weak in nature that even a fly took away the pieces of feast sweets, the idols cannot take it back from the mouth of it.
d). There are historical incidents presented in which the human made big plans, having programs and various investments etc. for getting benefits from his mental strategies but all at once, everything turned opposite without any apparent plan or precaution. Human being think himself master of the situation and perfect in his knowledge or scientific miracles but they all fail as all actions, deeds, incidents are pre-determined by the Creator (Allah) and human beings are dependent on His will and order. Surah explains the example of two persons with their faiths , one on monotheism and other on self controlled planning in cultivating the gardens, but how at night prior to collecting the fruits of the garden, it all was destroyed by the thunderstorm, leaving nothing for the great planner. It is narrated in surahs that the great planner with all the wit bent down on knee crying for not put his trust on the Creator but on the self proud and over-confidence by avoiding the warning of his monotheistic friend. This phenomenon of human limitations and knowledge is observable in plan clashing, hear attacks, collapse under environmental/natural pressures like air, water, land and other natural powers which is beyond human control in spite of his boosting himself as super power or authority on this earth. e) As noted above Allah challenged in various verse with daily life examples to create awareness about His authority on all the universe including knowledgeable human being that they have no control on one’s own creation, life, death, sickness, fortune or fate. Ii. They cannot control the universe. Iii. Cannot change or create as He has already created even all the non-believers (friends of Iblis/Satan along his friends on earth may undo what He has done because He is the sole creator of the universe and the prevailing universal system the creations.
e). the process of creation of human being was presented with simple examples of I. the Adam without a parent ii. Blessings of children in the oldest age of a couple without any chance of fertilization of baby to Ibrahim and later to Zachariah and iii. Provided another proof of a baby to the pious virgin Miriam IV. With the miracle of talking child (Isa) in the lap of mother about the purity of the mother and declaration as servant human being to the Almighty power of Allah who blessed him v. miracles beyond the imagination of a common person of that time is wrong.
As narrated above Islam is based on reason with the basic human right as an individual. So, the misunderstanding that human being has no control on his deeds. In the Quran at various sections of human nature presentation, it is made clear that human beings has complete senses to observe, feel and make decisions to act as he has been provided reasoning power to decide about his own fate. Keeping in view his nature for looking easy way in life and giving importance to instinctive desires and his selfish needs, he has been directed by his Creator (Allah) through His messages and directions with warning of punishment for extreme, aggressive behavior and disobeying his sole Master, He sent the prophet for guidance. So, it is up to mankind himself what direction an individual pursue in his life span. Both reward and torment and directions were provided to all the children of Adam by giving him the life period to correct himself otherwise face the consequences on the day of judgment without any discrimination by the Creator.
Keeping in view the psychology of human beings with a tendency and limitations of knowledge, so all the holy books revealed with the same message (monotheism and right path to follow in life) and each individual will be called to questions according to his possessed skills and period (era). So, Allah who is the most merciful, kind with authority to forgive remains His door open for blessings and forgiveness to his human beings who repents and looks for correction in life time.
In this respect while describing the previous nations and children of Israel role for not obeying and fulfilling the commitment with Moses in religion, Surah Taha (V-20) described that He provided reason and directions to mankind but they disobeyed him. The state of Adam was presented that he was told not to eat the forbidden seed by he was tracked in by the Satan who is mankind permanent enemy to persuade against the orders of Allah, so he was put out the haven to earth but on realizing the fault by Adam, he was forgiven on his repentances but told to follow right direction to get back to haven by good deeds by his all generation. These details are as given in V-20: 115-135,
For the clarification of various confused thoughts about the authenticity of Almighty Allah (God), last prophet and holy book (the Quran) revealed to him, the complete 29-Surah Al-Ankabut is full of wisdom to study it analytically with an objective and analytical mind. As an instance on the subject of guidance to Muslims to respect the others religions and avoid confrontation but discuss with honor and respect it is quoted in this V-29:44,” (Allah says to His Prophet Muhammad “Allah (Alone) created the heavens and the earth with truth (and none shared Him in their creation)." Verily! Therein is surely a sign for those who believe. Recite (O Muhammad) what has been revealed to you of the Book (the Quran), and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat). Verily, As-Salat (the prayer) prevents from Al-Fahsha' (i.e. great sins of every kind, unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.) and Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief, polytheism, and every kind of evil wicked deed, etc.) and the remembering (praising, etc.) of (you by) Allah (in front of the angels) is greater indeed [than your remembering (praising, etc.) Allah in prayers, etc.]. And Allah knows what you do. And argue not with the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), unless it be in (a way) that is better (with good words and in good manner, inviting them to Islamic Monotheism with His Verses), except with such of them as do wrong, and say (to them): "We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you; our Ilah (God) and your Ilah (God) is One (i.e. Allah), and to Him we have submitted (as Muslims)." And thus We have sent down the Book (i.e. this Quran) to you (O Muhammad ), and those whom We gave the Scripture [the Taurat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospel) aforetime] believe therein as also do some of these (who are present with you now like 'Abdullah bin Salam) and none but the disbelievers reject Our Ayat [(proofs, signs, verses, lessons, etc., and deny Our Oneness of Lordship and Our Oneness of worship and Our Oneness of Our Names and Qualities: i.e. Islamic Monotheism)].”
In order to create wisdom in the non-believers who stated that the prophet himself has created the verses of the Quran, the authenticity of the holy book is revealed in v 48-49 “ Neither did you (O Muhammad ) read any book before it (this Quran), nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. In that case, indeed, the followers of falsehood might have doubted. Nay, but they, the clear Ayat [i.e. the description and the qualities of Prophet Muhammad written like verses in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injil (Gospel)] are preserved in the breasts of those who have been given knowledge (from the people of the Scriptures). And none but the Zalimun (polytheists and wrongdoers, etc.) deny Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.).
It is repeatedly warned to critics of Monotheism for correction of their false judgment that the prophet who never claimed himself as a super human being except the messenger of Allah (God), his status is revealed in V-50:5,” And they say: "Why are not signs sent down to him from his Lord? Say: "The signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain Warner.” Is it not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book (the Quran) which is recited to them? Verily, herein is mercy and a reminder (or an admonition) for a people who believe. Say (to them O Muhammad): "Sufficient is Allah for a witness between me and you. He knows what is in the heavens and on earth." And those who believe in Batil (all false deities other than Allah), and disbelieve in Allah and (in His Oneness), it is they who are the losers. And they ask you to hasten on the torment (for them), and had it not been for a term appointed, the torment would certainly have come to them. And surely, it will come upon them suddenly while they perceive not! They ask you to hasten on the torment. And verily! Hell, of a surety, will encompass the disbelievers. On the Day when the torment (Hell-fire) shall cover them from above them and from underneath their feet, and it will be said: "Taste what you used to do."
For those who believe that there are other then the Almighty Allah(God) and criticize the words of revealed holy book, they are given reason of the limitations of mankind against the truth stated in the Quran as given further in this Surah 56-9,” O My slaves who believe! Certainly, spacious is My earth. Therefore worship Me (Alone)." Everyone shall taste the death. Then unto Us you shall be returned. And those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, to them We shall surely give lofty dwellings in Paradise, underneath which rivers flow, to live therein forever. Excellent is the reward of the workers. Those who are patient, and put their trust (only) in their Lord (Allah).” It is further quoted to observe the natural system 60-”And so many a moving (living) creature there is, that carries not its own provision! Allah provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. If you were to ask them: "Who has created the heavens and the earth and subjected the sun and the moon?" They will surely reply: "Allah." How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)? Allah enlarges the provision for which He wills of His slaves, and straitens it for which (He wills). Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything. If you were to ask them: "Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and gives life therewith to the earth after its death?" They will surely reply: "Allah." Say: "All the praises and thanks be to Allah!" Nay! Most of them have no sense. And this life of the world is only amusement and play! Verily, the home of the Hereafter, that is the life indeed (i.e. the eternal life that will never end), if they but knew And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others. So that they become ingrate for that which We have given them, and that they take their enjoyment (as a warning and a threat), but they will come to know. Have they not seen that We have made (Mecca) a sanctuary secure, and that men are being snatched away from all around them? Then do they believe in Batil (falsehood - polytheism, idols and all deities other than Allah), and deny (become ingrate for) the Graces of Allah? And who does more wrong than he who invents a lie against Allah or denies the truth (Muhammad and his doctrine of Islamic Monotheism and this Quran), when it comes to him? Is there not a dwelling in Hell for disbelievers (in the Oneness of Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad)? As for those who strive hard in Us (Our Cause), We will surely guide them to Our Paths (i.e. Allah's Religion - Islamic Monotheism). And verily, Allah is with the Muhsinun (good doers)."
It is reminded even to believers that they should be worried and concerned about their own deeds and not to be confident that they are better from their other fellows. It is stated in V-49:11-20.
Thirdly it was advised to use good language/words while addressing to their religious worshiping heads as they may not use wrong words for you Allah (God) merely due to opposition, revenge or hatred. It is narrated in 41-Surah v-33-5,” And who is better in speech than he who [says: "My Lord is Allah (believes in His Oneness)," and then stands straight (acts upon His Order), and] invites (men) to Allah's (Islamic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds, and says: "I am one of the Muslims." The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal. Repel (the evil) with one which is better (i.e. Allah ordered the faithful believers to be patient at the time of anger, and to excuse those who treat them badly), then verily! He, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend. But none is granted it (the above quality) except those who are patient, and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion (of the happiness in the Hereafter i.e. Paradise and in this world of a high moral character).”
Fourthly, the prophet was directed about his sole mission is just to preach the messages revealed to him in the Quran. So, he followed His command and delivered to ahale kitab. It is quoted in 05-Surah Al-Maida v 65 and described in 14-Surah Ibrahim V-14:-3-4.
As far as general principles of judging or criticizing the other nations or opponent are concerned it is quoted in the Quran that every person deeds will be judged individually for awarding reward or punishment. It is revealed in the start of V-35:15- & v 31-2 and human beings were cautioned not be deceived by the present luxuries only, They are advised to observe the nature to know Allah existence through it as all activities of creature are in knowledge of Allah:,V-27-30.
Secondly no one will be responsible for the misdeeds of other person even if they may be close blood relatives. It is stated in V-53: 31-50
Prophet Job is just to follow the command as delivered to him by the messenger Gabriel strictly as ordered as presented in V 2-11.
Thirdly the code of judgment and criteria of accountability is a set principle of all living being without any discrimination of religion, sex, nation or origin. In Surah mentioned, V-18:27-31.
So, it was also a warning to all people including ahale kitab that no one is special or gifted in the court of Almighty Judge of universe. So, it was warned to clear the misunderstanding among the people as quoted in V-16:33-46.
It is essential to note that the present-day critics of Allah, Quran and Muhammad (PBUH) uses the same old tactics which non-believers and ahale kitab used in the time of the prophet. It is easy to criticize then to reproduce some authentic alternate system. In this respect, the data has been presented of the Quran in which Allah has revealed the logical answer with the challenge to these people to present a single verse like the Quran, produce a single universal witness or bring an alternative system if they are true in their stand against Allah and His words i.e. the Quran (which will remain intact till the end of this universe.
Qimat time cannot reply as it is the will of God and not the personal discretion of His creature. He gave world historical knowledge, nations and prophets, origin of the universe and detailed of treatment, awarding according to individual deeds etc. so whatever He liked to give knowledge to a prophet who has no formal education, training of reading and writing. And world still up today learn from the Quran revealed to him.
In fact the Bible and the Quran are largely the same in tone, style and message. It is a misconception created by certain western writers and wrong even for considering that the Quran criticizes Judaism or Christianity as such. In fact it is narrated how Allah sees about certain groups of Jews and Christians about how they historically acted and did wrong deeds as guided to them by their respective prophets. Allah and Quran fairly describe the deeds of Muslims when they did not seriously comply with the directions. It can be observed in the Quran after the battle of Uhud, there was criticism also of Muslims. It is not that Islam is saying Muslims are perfect so they shouldn’t be criticized.
Allah has narrated that it is not the religion rather the people in these religions who did not comply and changed the words of holy books for personal gains or to do favouritism to certain people/groups in the religious practices.
There’s no criticism as such of the whole religion, but criticism of wrong beliefs deviated from the original revelations of these prophets, for correction and bringing them back to it if they accept, and wrong actions.
It criticized first those who were not honest in their commercial dealing, and in the same verse it said they are not all the same. Allah has fixed morality standard for all the holy religions, so who so ever break these set rules of Allah are punished equally in respect of the name of a certain religion and will be treated equally on the Day of Judgment.
In order to deal with the differences and debating and argument affairs of ahele kitab and non-believers, verses have been revealed as guide lines based on reasoning and patience with respect to other than Islam. Some are presented for the critical attitude of the present day writers.
There are plenty of data in Quran which describe the nature of Jews who were declared as gifted nations but they betrayed with the prophets, turned against them and killed them through dirty plans, made excuses when they were given, they restarted their practices of playing with the guidelines given to them by their prophet and holy books. It is important to note that they even tried to kill Isa (Jesus) with the help of Roman authorities but failed to do so as he was saved by Allah (God) and their plans failed.