History contains numbers of cases in which autocrats, monarchs and crazy leaders who crushed mankind till revolution took place against their established states. The Roman and British empires ended after rebellions against their rule, and consequently most of the present liberated nations are now on the list of UNO. In spite of modernity, so many nations like Palestine and Kashmir are struggling for their national survival by sacrificing their lives for freedom from the occupants. The struggling forces have a noble cause for struggling beyond personal motives and needs without hurting innocent human beings.
In the present civilized society, terrorism, extremism, harassment, mafia enforcement has become the part of human suffering. Corruption, smuggling, poverty, and unemployment have subdued the normal functioning of the people. Might is right and hypocrisy is dominating the society, so a common person seems to be helpless. These factors are interrelated but the main focus of this presentation will be on the extremism and terrorism in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Middle Eastern countries where it has become a cancer in society. Each of these has various forms but sectarian and territorial obsession, which is dominant in the social setup, will be discussed.
The psychology of human beings is to try to control other humans, right from the birth of Adam till today. In the Qur’an, the story of Habil and Qabil is narrated as a lesson to mankind in V-5:27, 31, when the aggressor son killed his brother to get the female of his choice. Control and power have been the quest of mankind as men remain restless and struggle to hold onto varying sources on this Earth. In the Qur’an, Allah has mentioned that He created mankind to be in struggling in nature. It is fine as far as it is for a good cause but becomes serious when humans use it aggressively to repress fellow beings by crushing their rights, sources, and self-respect.
According to the Qur’an, the present terrorism is against the model and preaching of the Holy Prophet. It is quoted repeatedly in the Holy Book and guided by the Prophet that peace and Muslims unity is the base of Islam, Allah disgraces and curses those who create disturbance among people as narrated in V-13:25, V-7:56, V-10:81, V-28:77. Due to ignorance of the meaning and comprehension of the Qur’an, the Mullahs/Imams have misused the sentiments of blind followers and have used the word Jihad (struggle) with their own sectarian agenda leading to Fitna (destruction) in the Ummah. In fact, this cancer needs an aggressive surgical treatment, as it has no fixed boundaries in human society and has scattered more severely within the established social setup.
The illogical killings by terrorists and extremists harass the innocent people for personal gains. They are playing the political role of a rebellious pressure group to topple the legitimate governments. These are the offshoots of the insurgents who started the struggle to get freedom from the Russian military occupying Afghanistan. With the political interest to defeat the Russian superpower in this area, the Americans supported these insurgents with dollars and ammunition. Gen. Zia ul Haq, who toppled the legitimate PPP government of Zulfqar Bhutto, colored it a religious war (Jihad) to gain the support of the heads of the Muslim countries, and of the USA and its allies. After the defeat of Russia, American left the war zone without resolving the Afghanistan issues which created chaos and anarchy leading to disorganization of the Jihadist groups. Loss of resources and personal interests of the tribal heads created a vacuum of power and these people realized that they had been used by USA and their religious sentiments misled. These groups then entered the phase of taking revenge from the Americans who they believe misused them in the war of freedom for Afghanistan.
At this stage those local tribal lords also joined the terrorist activities. Prior to this, they were accustomed to earning their living through smuggling, drugs trafficking, robberies, general criminality, and ransom activities like kidnapping. They feel worthy in plotting against the innocent under a self-proclaimed Islamic revolution and upholding tribal dignity through slaughtering harmless civilians in non-combat situation. The political conditions after 9/11/2001 and the aggressive attack by the American and allies on the existing Afghan ruling groups further deteriorated the human sufferings when the Al-Qaida group of Osama lost its organizational grip on the tribal heads. At this stage there was the rule of the jungle where might is right. Under the umbrella of Islam, it became the terrorists’ business to gain power and support through foreign funding and gaining control over various pockets of Afghanistan and the Northern tribal belt of Pakistan. Various terrorist groups with self-made manifestoes are not only contradictory to Qur’anic guidance and Islamic preaching; rather they have harmed the Islamic ideology of peace throughout the world.
In their humiliation from the well-equipped American forces and the allies, these terrorist groups started inhuman activities and harassment against their own Muslim states and citizens (Pakistan & Afghanistan). Psychologically, they have generalized their rage against America and its allies to the Muslim states and citizens. They are involved in suicidal bombing, target killings, kidnapping and destroying the sensitive institutions of the state to weaken the administration and economy. They are so revengeful and selfish that they work against the Islamic values and act like psychopaths in slaughtering innocent population in their hatred of mankind.
Some of their accomplices have gone underground in their sabotaging activities against the American allies. These groups are sponsored, trained and guided by various foreign states. The terrorists keep changing affiliations as whosoever pays the price and meets their needs, they work for them in creating chaos and disruption in the state through bombings, etc. They recruit and use the workers mostly from the poor, jobless teenagers through the influence of their tribal heads and religious mullahs. They have a history of barbarism as a show of power in their respective tribes and families. They have the least knowledge of the meaning of Qur’an and poor practices of the obligatory duties of Islam or the mannerism of the Holy Prophet.
Traditionally, the perception about Islam of those Muslims born in Muslim families is based on the hearsay of elders, with ritual aspects of the tribal belief system. Due to ignorance of the meanings of Qur’an, authentic mannerism of the Prophet and poor insight about the Islamic civilization, they are motivated easily by the funded terrorists. Some adventurous wealthy miscreant Muslims also head them for fun. Most of these culprits seem to be just Muslim by name or by birth because they lack insight or training about Islam and its daily practices. The present role of terrorism is more harming to carefree Muslim youth who being ignorant of knowledge (as foreigners to the Arabic language) of the verses of Qur’an, are derailed and persuaded by the glamorous propaganda of the Mullahs/Imams. In fact, they lack insight about Muslim brotherhood under command of God, the Holy Book’s message with which Muhammad (PBUH) united all the Muslims of all the cultures, languages, status, sexes, colors and ethnicities. If these terrorist may be cross questioned on Islamic values, they may just add that they are fighting as Jihadists against the kefirs and their allied state while they are not destroying the kefirs. They are destroying the cause of Islam and have generated hatred against it. They are blocking the flow of non-Muslims who would have embraced with Islam if taught and preached with the true meanings of Qur’an and its practices as presented by the Prophet to various nations who embraced with Islam.
In fact the terrorist and their sponsoring Muslims know the words of God but, like hypocrites, follow their own missions, as quoted in V-2: 27,”Those who break Allah's Covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allah has ordered to be joined (as regards Allah's Religion of Islamic Monotheism, and to practice its legal laws on the Earth and also as regards keeping good relations with kith and kin), and do mischief on Earth, it is they who are the losers.”
Qur’an has revealed lessons from the deeds of previous nations who misused the verses of their holy books, interpreting them to give benefit to desirous sects. Certain Mullahs have also been using the same techniques. It is narrated in V-2:78-81,” And there are among them (Jews) unlettered people, who know not the Book, but they trust upon false desires and they but guess. Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say, "This is from Allah," to purchase with it a little price! Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby. And they (Jews) say, "The Fire (i.e. Hell-fire on the Day of Resurrection) shall not touch us but for a few numbered days." Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): "Have you taken a covenant from Allah, so that Allah will not break His Covenant? Or is it that you say of Allah what you know not?" Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him, they are dwellers of the Fire (i.e. Hell); they will dwell therein forever.”
The crucial topic among Muslims is how to tackle the cancer of extremism. The situation has deteriorated because the original organized Jihadist group has been replaced by splitting into small uncontrolled tribal harassment group who use religion for personal gains. Each one of such group has its own agenda to gain power and control through harassment in the civil life where no one is safe. They threaten people, ask for ransoms, and endorse their favorite political religious groups to control governmental affairs. The people who supported these groups are now at the mercy of these people and even state heads, businessmen or civil administration are targeted to create chaos in society. The sectarian and territorial difference has worsened the life of ordinary citizen as government has no control over the guerrilla tactics and suicidal bombing. As these people are a part of tribal life, they easily mingle among the masses. When they are chased by the armed forces, they seek relief in the caves of the chain of mountains. Many jobless, aggressive and revolution-minded adolescents have become a part of the anti-human spirit of these anarchists. At times, it is hard for the administration to locate them from the populated areas as they get support from the radical anti-government elements. They have adapted terrorism as a profession to gain monetary benefits and use it as to destroy peace under the name of Sharia.
The analysis of the Islamic history indicates that Islam and Ummah have been damaged more by the Muslim themselves then the non-Muslim forces. Social Psychology points out that a minority group is unified and progresses under the fear of insecurity or loss of control; on the other hand, a majority group gradually loses its inner structure of power due to mutual rivalries or slackness due to the over-confidence of its forces or resources. The religious leaders and rulers, instead of resolving the minor issues which later on become great challenges of distractions among them, use the resources of even the non-Muslim powers to crush their political and sectarian enemies. In Islamic interpretation, a true Muslim is not just nominal, rather one should act and prove oneself a committed follower in Islam, is revealed in V-49:14-16,” The Bedouins say: "We believe." Say: "You believe not but you only say, 'We have surrendered (in Islam),' for Faith has not yet entered your hearts. But if you obey Allah and His Messenger, He will not decrease anything in reward for your deeds. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." Only those are the believers who have believed in Allah and His Messenger, and afterward doubt not but strive with their wealth and their lives for the Cause of Allah. Those! They are the truthful. Say: "Will you inform Allah about your religion? While Allah knows all that is in the heavens and all that is in the Earth, and Allah is All-Aware of everything.”
The wealthy Muslim countries, which sponsored the sectarian and territorial obsessions of these terrorist groups, are now facing the flow of the terrorist groups working against their own existence. These terrorists have turned their aggression against certain Muslim tribes, sects and Muslim governments, and are ruthlessly involved in killing innocent citizens, burning properties, bombing schools, looting, and creating terror among Muslims under the name of Islam. Such groups deface all Muslims as non-Muslims consider such activities permissible in Islamic practices. The extremists know that Qur’an provides not only reasoning, but also creates awareness in that people who collect wealth and power are warned about death and the after-death accountability process. It is quoted in V-102: 1-8,” The mutual rivalry for piling up of worldly things diverts you, .Until you visit the graves (i.e. till you die). Nay! You shall come to know! Again, Nay! You shall come to know! Nay! If you knew with a sure knowledge (the end result of piling up, you would not have occupied yourselves in worldly things) Verily, You shall see the blazing Fire (Hell)! And again, you shall see it with certainty of sight! Then, on that Day, you shall be asked about the delight (you indulged in, in this world)."
Muslims are directed and redirected to not follow the pre-Islamic pattern of fighting and killing each other for personal gains instead of creating peace with each other. Detailed messages are revealed for Muslims to avoid blindly trusting or favoring non-Muslims in life affairs. It is placed in V-3:102-108 & 118,” O you who believe! Fear Allah (by doing all that He has ordered and by abstaining from all that He has forbidden) as He should be feared. [Obey Him, be thankful to Him, and remember Him always], and die not except in a state of Islam (as Muslims) with complete submission to Allah. And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah (i.e. this Qur’an), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allah's Favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islamic Faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that you may be guided. Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good (Islam), enjoining Al-Ma'ruf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do) and forbidding Al-Munkar (polytheism and disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden). And it is they who are the successful. And be not as those who divided and differed among themselves after the clear proofs had come to them. It is they for whom there is an awful torment. On the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) when some faces will become white and some faces will become black; as for those whose faces will become black (to them will be said): "Did you reject Faith after accepting it? Then taste the torment (in Hell) for rejecting Faith." And for those whose faces will become white, they will be in Allah's Mercy (Paradise), therein they shall dwell forever. These are the Verses of Allah: We recite them to you (O Muhammad) in truth, and Allah wills no injustice to the 'Alamin (mankind and jinns).”“118. O you who believe! Take not as (your) Bitanah (advisors, consultants, protectors, helpers, friends, etc.) those outside your religion (pagans, Jews, Christians, and hypocrites) since they will not fail to do their best to corrupt you. They desire to harm you severely. Hatred has already appeared from their mouths, but what their breasts conceal is far worse. Indeed We have made plain to you the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses) if you understand.”
(Cont'd in the Book)
”That no burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another. And that man can have nothing but what he does (good or bad), And that his deeds will be seen, Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense And that to your Lord (Allah) is the End (Return of everything).” (V-53:38-42)
PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF THE QUR’AN
PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATION FOR HUMAN INNOVATION (South Carolina, USA)
PROF. DR. MUHAMMAD SHOAIB SHAHID
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Due to lack of comprehension of the Qur’an, the modern Muslim terrorist has emerged with self-created concepts of Islam, which is like an unconditioned response produced by a conditioned stimulus (false interpretation of Qur’an attached to a false concept of Jihad).
While teaching and training the university graduates, the writer got an opportunity to do research and present seminars on this subject. It was found that the impact of induced hypnotic state in a terrorist depends on the process and procedure adapted by the mullahs/teachers of the blind follower under an organized brainwashing system, which is contrary to Islamic practices and
Teaching of Qur’an. Therefore, a detailed analysis with clinical solution on individual and national level is presented for the awareness of the public, government policyholders and especially the parents, who need to be vigilant in rearing and teaching adolescents in the repressed and economically challenged tribal areas.
PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF A TERRORIST
Prior to presentation of psychological causes of terrorism, one must be aware of the psychological profile of a terrorist. It is important to note that no one is a born terrorist or extremist. If it is a learnt behavior and personal trend, then it can be corrected through counter-conditioning for developing a normal peaceful human being. So, it is necessary to know how (a) a certain person is mentally prepared as a terrorist by (b) certain politically-oriented religious/tribal heads as a (c) training through a (d) specific psychological process for an (e) obsessive-compulsive reaction to achieve a specific target.
The presented psychological data is the result of the author’s practices, evidence of 9/11/2001 & its aftereffects as well as media’s role against Islam in the western countries. In order to analyze the terrorists’ & extremists’ motives by using certain Targets groups in the prevailing educational, cultural, religious, socio-economic & legal system, it is important to see the inputs of certain local elements, government & global reactions, and leaders’ and citizens’ roles in promoting this business.
Reason demands that we find out why a citizen violates a law and hurts other people under revenge or obsessive-compulsive life-threatening behavior. Psychologically, when one has no chance to get his rights or claim genuine sources to live as an honorable citizen in his community, then he is internally forced to get attention negatively as he is sick of society. So, he demands change with a desperate need for recognition, but due to hatred against authority, he looks for means and outlets for his repressed aggression. He seeks satisfaction after torturing the ruling class, and takes revenge for his crushed ego of early life. He becomes reactive against the injustice and maltreatment of the society. When he reaches the saturated state from social deprivation, he counter reacts due to inability to meet his deficits.
From the start of human socialization, in semi-literate areas, common man used religion as an option for getting soothing effect. Even in Indian caste system, the role of a Brahman is very important in decision making, performing rituals and interpretation in state or tribal affairs. There exists a key conditioning and blind trust in the true follower. African tribal study by the western psychologists explain the phenomenon of voodoo death which is an element of death under the spell of a religious head’s verdict, creating a deep hypnotic impact on the religious believers of the clans.
In Islam, importance is given to observe the mannerism of the great Prophet based on only the Qur’anic versions without any distinction of sex, rank, caste, group or origin. Islam gives priority to tolerance and moderation in life. The main focus is on the kindness and blessings of God with a direct link between the Lord and individuals, as stated in V-3:31 and V-16:119.
Unfortunately, the orthodox religious preacher has added perfectionism and strict control on the normal instinctive needs. This has generated various psychological ailments and personality disorders such as hysteria and compulsive-obsessive reactions in the blind followers, who have no authority to challenge the religious head in the orthodox practices. These religious heads play with the beliefs of the sincere and devoted but ill-informed and sentimental followers in various nations. Such quacks have been propagating that they have the spiritual power to issue a certificate of approval from Allah, which is contradictory to Islamic values. Their followers follow their command without questioning their power or knowledge. Qur’an describes that the fate of each individual will be decided according to his deeds in the life time. So, those who follow the right path or oppose it, he will be treated accordingly and no one will take the burden of other, as revealed in V-17:15.
MENTAL PROGRAMMING OF A TERRORIST FOR ACTION
The mastermind and leader of a terrorist organization play a key role in carrying out their aggressive attacks successfully. They have been organizing like paramilitary forces to sabotage established society. The training varies from individual to a group according to situations in the target area. Hence, they give priority to success in training their groups for a deeper impact on the targeted people and important institutions. High rewards and commitment to the group cause become the motivating forces for the participants in such criminal actions. So, as professional criminals, through funding, they set military-type training centers. They use sophisticated arms, sensitive information like thorough maps, inhabitants’ living patterns, local references, and trained resistance in combat situation etc. before conducting an attack. Using war-like techniques of merging in the people to study the time and location for the action, they prepare the terrorist in shape and uniform to dodge the civil administration. The unpatriotic stance of the public and the selfish devotees of these groups make their task easy to achieve in a well-established state.
In order to understand the process of training of a terrorist mind, one must understand the mentality of an expected terrorist. Psychologically, the selection of the terrorist is based on the handicapped mental state and personality traits that play a key role in preparing a future target. Mostly adolescents are selected for this job who are kidnapped, those inducted on the local tribal decision, those who have an urge to prove their honor in the tribe, those who are mesmerized to be martyrs among the clan adolescents, those with a mission to take revenge from foreign agencies, those captivated by economic attractions, those who were psychologically humiliated or have an acute abnormal mental state. Those who are recruited have also faced severe repression of their adolescent instinctive needs and are converted under blind religious devotion and enchantment to get paradise with virgins on completion of suicidal bombing, etc.
Unfortunately, these people follow the religion based on the hearsay of their eldest without any comprehension of the Qur’an. Their beliefs are based on rigid tribal concepts which are passed from generation to generation through the Mullahs/Imams within the clans.
The goal of the potential terrorist is: gain of money, mental relief, group/tribal recognition, great rewards from the existing socio-economic and psychological state, relief from tension of job or placement, attraction to be symbol of clan dignity, martyr hood and joining the deceased, approval as a hero, mental peace over revenge f past humiliation, a bright future for the family, and religious belief of high rewards after a sinful or guilt-ridden life. The cognition state of the participant is: blocked normal intellectual functioning skills due to repressed Id with anxiety, attached to a relief model (ego defense mechanism).
Mostly such terrorists have limited information or are subject to false information, possess undeveloped cognitive skills, have poor exposure to reasoning, and have limited access to interaction. Psychologically, they act under the spell of collective unconscious forces (recorded culture, myth and beliefs) due to geographical and environmental conditions.
The process of mental preparation is based on systematic desensitization and programmed behavior with reinforcement for achieving a target behavior, such as:
Repeated brainwashing and attaching reward to an obsessed thought; forcing action though a coded command based on the local culture and rituals.
As far as the effective state of a terrorist is concerned, their repressed aggression against authority is diverted toward a target, and they wish to get relief only from the tension and stress which is induced by compulsion. Mostly, they have discontentment with the world, cultural pressures, injustice and have self-tortured tendency due to experiences of a selfish world and cultural provocation.
The most important are the personality traits and psychic component of the terrorist which are main ingredient of this mental processing. They are mostly: “Lonesome, desperate, confused, rejected, over-ruled/ insulted, defeated, introvert, rigid, having delusions and illusions, depressed, humiliated, suppressed, helpless to pass life on one’s own authenticity and meet his dreams of life, desire/urge to get approval of his beloved and prove his worth, do something unique for recognition and have a spiritual reward of high esteem.”
As far as the brain washing of such persons is concerned, the clinical processing takes place from various perspectives of human nature. They may be as under:
1. Compulsion: (High confusion due to repressed Id impulses leading to severe anxiety of punishment) has an irresistible urge to perform it, experiencing considerable distress (guilt, sin, Lord’s punishment) if withheld from not performing it immediately.
2. Repeatedly programmed fear/anxiety is induced for dire consequences if the act is not performed as a ritual created by the Religious/Tribal Head (Conditioning).
3. Stages of Obsession/Hypnotic States:
I. Confused/doubts II. Obsessed thoughts III. Obsessed Impulses
IV. Obsessed fear with image of punishment if the induced thought is not performed V. Yielding for Compulsion VI. Blindly following till action is completed.
4. Dis-associative Reaction: Hysterical personality (loss of own memory, identity, worth or purpose of existence), flees away from his routine life, usual surrounding, --an altered state of mind—entire new goals, new life with new action, may be quite contrary to his real personality (conscious split off, massive repression, repressed Id/sexual urges and impulsive sexual satisfaction but, due to super-ego control, converted into a defense mechanism.)
5. Over-riding importance of infantile sexual conflicts, stressful events may be sexually abused or maltreated by an authority) turns into psychic state of revenge till completing through a programmed behavior.
6. Cognitive process & Philosophy of Existence: a form of existential neurosis---Superego and Ego imposed forcefully by the external world/agents and society that the person is experiencing a high level of anxiety in a stressful traumatic situation but has no social skills to handle it by himself and easily comes under suggestibility of an ‘teacher,’ has no freedom of choice, helpless and hopeless state is imposed to adopt a particular philosophy of life by authoritarian and unquestionable super power of a tribe head (Do or Die Situation, No Way Out)
7. Mortal in a material world: Immaterial individual with feelings of no selectivity or choice (Maddi) becomes a dependent personality- only following a cult is the purpose of life. “Death or life means nothing to an individual, over-charged person without a reason. There is gross disruption in the social order—no personal identity. Death becomes the goal of achievement of the life to meet dear ones.
8. Knowingly facing and running toward the end of life to achieve the purpose of life, i.e. Virgin blessed in paradise to a martyr.
9. An Acute state of mind—depressed and directed to meet the dear ones after death- otherwise, guilt feelings in survival without taking revenge from the enemy (as told and pointed out by the Religious/Tribal Head)
10. Over-charged ANS, endocrine glands, uncontrolled and regenerating psycho-neurological system, leading to impulses as well as confused normal thinking and perception along with decision-making skills, reasoning stopped, illusion and delusions prevail and control all thoughts for quick action.
11. Clinical Hypnotic State of Mind:- Blind, unconscious follower to act under a coded program (cognitive variables injected by his competent authority on repeated brainstorming, losing the skills of reasoning, merely following the plan step by step on self-reinforced values (Carved in thoughts- Piaget).
After deterring a potential terrorist for suicidal bombing, the most important job is the training process with autosuggestion strategies adapted by the terrorist recruiter. The concerned terrorist is placed in isolation under constant prescribed mental state and conditioning process. He then develops a self-reinforced program through auto-suggestion, meditation
(solitary place, closed eyes visualizing and planning as ritual by cutting down his own urges and identity, concentrating only on the target information, Reinforcements: attaches Divine approval & heavenly rewards, awaiting Hoor (gift of a virgin beautiful woman in paradise) and fulfillment of long- awaited desires and repressed Id impulses.
He practices to such an extent that his fantasies starts to appear a reality and reality just a fantasy. He imagines the recognition of his contributions as a martyr by his clan and significant others, and all his dreams of impulses ready to be fulfilled only at a distance between accomplishment of his mission (blasting the enemy target identified by his religious or tribal head) relieving himself from the worldly sufferings, stresses and aggression induced by opponents and getting God’s approval in the form of his dream of Heaven.
* The reader should study and comprehend the mental state of the terrorist in reference to various Paradigms as given in Abnormal & Clinical Psychology.
The present crisis is the result of socio-economic conditions of deprived middle and lower class, faulty educational system & rate of illiteracy, role of Madarsa & religious exploitation, and the media’s exploitation of the situation.
Analysis and application of mental faculty (mental process) and personality development of individual in a certain environmental conditioning (teacher and teaching practices) with reinforcement elements, are presented which can take the shape of an extremist or a mentally healthy, peace-loving productive citizen of Pakistan.
It is necessary to examine the prevailing conditions which emerged after the defeat of Russia by Mujahedeen fighters, who were left uncontrolled by the American forces and the chaos unsolved for an organized country, particularly in the tribal areas of Afghanistan and Pakistan. One must be aware of the complicated ground realities for achieving a sound scientific solution. For this purpose, it is essential to study the Target Population (adolescents), living conditions of the Middle and Lower Middle class, Madarsa students in tribal and ghetto areas, private westernized English- medium schools for the elite in Pakistan, present educational system without any national awareness.
A. Target Population
1. Middle and lower middle class students are taught in Urdu medium of instruction and given poor English speaking or comprehension skills. They have poor exposure to other religions, cultures, general knowledge or world interaction. They are highly motivated, aggressive and energetic teenagers come out of harsh poverty. They face repeated failure in getting desirable jobs or education due to incompetency in English. Resultantly, they have repressed hatred against authority, and get overwhelmed with aggression and feelings of helplessness. These adolescents look for short and quick means to achieve the maximum due to glamorous advertisements. Instead of utilizing their energy for progressive direction, they easily become tools in the hands of extremists and terrorist groups.
2. Madras students are poor teenagers taught in free education and boarding system, with blind devotion to their teachers. They are mostly groomed by untrained teachers who have personality impoverishment, rigidity and repressed Id impulses. Such teachers have lack of insight, poor self-awareness and no knowledge of adolescent psychology. There is misuse of power by short-tempered and ill-informed teachers, during the significant mental and personality development process of students. Such semi-educated teachers mostly inject extreme irrational belief system in the young students with the imposition of personal Islamic ideologies and Qur’anic interpretations with harsh and rigorous punishment. The modeling impact of the teachers’ abnormal behavior, due to repressed Id impulses, mostly induces repressed aggression, anxiety and hatred in these crushed students forced to follow orthodox religious thoughts. Therefore, rigid and aggressive extremists emerge with impulses to bring revolution against the government with forceful public implementation of their own philosophy of life at any cost.
3. The private, westernized English-medium educational system for elite class in Pakistan is based on emphasis on western culture, general knowledge, and English speaking skills. Students are given limited Islamic knowledge, are not seriously exposed to translation of Qur’an, and are prepared for key posts and higher education in the country or abroad. As a result, students are under stress of competition or to meet the high expectations of family, but lack awareness of other socio-economic groups and ground realities of their own culture or religion.
4. The present educational system is outdated, philosophical and theoretical in nature with teachers’ authoritarian role in grading. Teachers are appointed on credential and research work in colleges and university without teaching training or related skills, and decide grades on personal discretion in a semester. Professors lack knowledge of adolescent psychology, mental processing and personality development of teenagers. Students pass exams through cramming to get high marks, without comprehension or mental preparation about applications in life. As a result, students lack self awareness, national identity, vocational career development, personal potentials, future needs, and professional insight to meet the global market challenges and to play a pivotal role in the socio-economic growth of country as individual citizens.
5. There are a variety of educational institutions with class discrimination, fixed priorities, business-oriented goals, policies and teaching strategies, poor interest about faculty and local issues (Private/Public, English/Non-English, Rural/Urban, Rich/Poor, Religious/ Liberal Federal/Provincial, etc.). As a result, a variety of students come from differing school systems to create and build differing national image of Pakistan.
6. The present private media channels have played an immature, subjective and aggressive role in exploiting the masses and creating a poor national spirit. They use attraction-cum-harassment mental state to attract the masses, and create deep, negative mental reaction, particularly among illiterate and emotionally immature people and adolescents who wish to have an outlet of their repressed Id impulses.
PREVENTIVE & CURRATIVE MEASURES FOR A TERRORIST
As already stated the basic principle of clinical psychology and psychotherapy is based on preventive measures (Individual & Group) and curative measures (Individual & Group). The assessment to resolve the un-resolved issues is traced through the clinical principle as
a) Individual Correction & Personality Resolution
b) Environmental Analysis, Correction/Resetting the System to get Desired Results
c) Implementation of Fixed Reward/Punishment
d) Justice as well as Accountability Process to Re-operate the Defaced Social System.
In order to present the psychological resolution of terrorism, one must have knowledge of the basic nature of mankind, personality and human development, creation of belief system, irrational belief as well as personality impoverishment in a repressed society. The mental functional state of a terrorist demands to see the impact of extremity in the following clinical features:
o Personality: (Heredity +Environment) T
o Implication of Adolescent Age
o Strictly Disciplined Inner Child
o Lack of Comprehension of Qur’an and Mannerism of the Prophet
o Poor Exposure to Science & Reason
o Limited Knowledge & Blind Trust in carved-in Thoughts forefathers as imposed by the Mullah
o Rigidity in Thinking Process
o Deprived/Depressed Personality
o Bio-chemical Imbalance
o Need to get immediate gratification of needs
o Overcharged/over-stimulated Id Impulses
o Blocked Ego between Repressed Aggression with misinformation toward the identified enemy by Authentic Ustad/Murshad (teacher/student)
o Reaction of Sociopath Personality - Seeking pleasure in torturing mankind to get inner satisfaction
o Highly Sentimental in Nature
o Controlled by Repressed Unconscious Forces Urge for Recognition
o Strong Irrational Belief System & Superstitions
o Looking for Immediate Gratification of Id & Fantasies
o High level of Impulses & Anxiety
o High Mixed State of Confusion Frustration Obsession & Delusions
Psychotherapy: Brain-washing of each terrorist mind depends on an individual for resolving the inner conflicts, complexes, repressed id impulses and personality impoverishment (as quoted above) of such terrorists. The derailed psychological energy can be converted into a unique citizen by channeling it for potential aptitudes toward human benefits.
For the rehabilitation of a committed terrorist, the following verses may help to reprogram by an authentic religious leader cum psychologist. As far as the solution or resolution of a terrorist is concerned, it is a learned, programmed action with both preventive and curative aspects which are applied according to the individual portfolio and treatment of a terrorist. As it is an uncontrollable trend to use religion for power and political gains, a national overhaul is needed to root out this psychologically-imposed social cancer. Mullah/Imams, instead of preaching with patience and homogeneity, is using hate-filled material for rivalry among the Muslims Ummah, which is narrated in V-2:78-81 and also in V-2: 41-42.
The Muslims who, understanding the Qur’an, are still involved in terrorist activities forget the ultimate end of life and accountability of evil deeds on rebirth. A precise picture of the people who takes life as pure pleasure and fight and kill the innocent without a fear of judgment is revealed in V-99: 1-8,” When the Earth is shaken with its (final) Earthquake. And when the Earth throws out its burdens and man will say: "What is the matter with it?" That Day it will declare its information (about all what happened over it of good or evil). Because your Lord has inspired it. That Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups that they may be shown their deeds. So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant), shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom (or a small ant), shall see it.”
The example of Qimat is presented as a warning to mankind for correction in this life span, as stated in V-80:33-42,” Then, when there comes As-Sakhkhah (the Day of Resurrection's second blowing of Trumpet), That Day shall a man flee from his brother, And from his mother and his father, And from his wife and his children. Everyman, that Day, will have enough to make him careless of others. Some faces that Day, will be bright (true believers of Islamic Monotheism) by laughing, rejoicing at good news (of Paradise). And other faces, that Day, will be dust-stained; Darkness will cover them, such will be the Kafarah (disbelievers in Allah, in His Oneness, and in His Messenger Muhammad, etc.), the Fajarah (wicked evil doers).”
(Cont'd in the Book)